Auch die ernsthafte Wissenschaft beschäftigt sich mit dem Herstellungsprozeß und den Eigenschaften von Cognac. Hier findet sich eine Zusammenstellung von wissenschaftlichen Arktikeln, die sich auf die eine oder andere Weise mit Cognac beschäftigen.
Zitation: Name der Zeitschrift, Volume (Issue), Seiten (Jahr)
Judy Snape: Le Cognac en Crise. Y a-t-il un avenir? Final work for a French degree at the University of Southampton, UK (2002). In French. (download pdf 367kB, with amiable permission from the author)
E. J. Campbell, D. M. Campbell, R. S. Roberts: Ability to distinguish whisky (uisge beatha) from brandy (cognac). BMJ. 309 (6970), 1686-8 (1994) To assess ability to distinguish between first rate malt whisky and brandy and between different brands of each. DESIGN--Crossover with two sessions of 12 blindfold tastings of two whiskies and two brandies before and after supper, repeated not more than seven days later. SETTING- -Dundas, Ontario. PARTICIPANTS--4 volunteers aged 50-68 years, all moderate drinkers of alcohol and members of a wine club. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Proportion of samples correctly identified (whisky v brandy) and, of those, the proportion of brands correctly identified. RESULTS--Only one participant produced irrefutable statistical evidence (P < 0.0001) of being able to distinguish between whisky and brandy, correctly identifying 50/51 (98%) samples. Two participants achieved some success in identification (72%, P = 0.0031 and 65% P = 0.031). The fourth participant's responses reflected pure guesswork. Brandy was no easier to identify than whisky (P = 0.84). The participant who was best able to distinguish between whisky and brandy was also best able to identify correctly the brand of whisky (100%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION- -Despite the fact that not all participants completed the full number of tastings the results show that some participants could distinguish neither between malt whisky and brandy nor between different brands of whisky and brandy. However, the success of one participant shows that "it can be done" and that his whisky specific ability is acquired not innate.
Qualität, Alterung, Zusammensetzung
Bernd Baus und andere: Weinausbau im Holzfaß. Artikel über die Details der alkoholische Extraktion aus dem Holz, Reifeprozesse und Mikrooxidation bei Wein. Die Prozesse werden bei Cognac ähnlich sein. Sehr lesenswerter Artikel, wie auch die anderen auf der Seite von www.weingut-hoerner.de. (link)
O. Lablanquie, G. Snakkers, R. Cantagrel, G. Ferrari: Charaterisation of young Cognac spirit aromatic quality. Analytica Chimica Acta, 458 (1), 191-196 (2002)
Pascal Chatonnet, Denis Dubourdieu: Using electronic odor sensors to discriminate among oak barrel toasting levels. J. Agric. Food Chem., 47, 4319-4322 (1999)
Roberto R. Madrera, Domingo B. Gomis, Juan J. Mangas Alonso: Influence of destillation system, oak wood type, and aging time on volatile compounds of Cider Brandy. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 5709-5714 (2003)
Carla Da Porto, Sonia Calligaris, Emilio Celotti, Maria Christina Nicoli: Antiradical properties of commercial Cognac assessed by the DPPH test. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48, 4241-4245 (2000) High molecular weight polyphenols are extracted from the wood and solubilized in the spirit manly during first year aging.
M. Palma, C. G. Barroso: Application of FT-IR spectroscopy to the characterisation and classification of wines, brandies and other distilled drinks. Talanta, 58 (2), 265-271 (2002)
Vivian A. Watts, Christan E. Butzke, Roger B. Boulton: Study of aged Cognac using solid-phase microextraction and partial least-squares regression. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 7738-7742, (2003)
A. G. Panosyan(1), G. Mamikonyan(1), M. Torosyan(1), A. Abramyan(1), A. Oganesyan(1), E. S. Gabrielyan(1), A. Grigoryants(1), S. Mkhitaryan(2), B. V. Lapin(3).: Determination of Phenolic Aldehydes in Cognacs and Wines by Capillary Electrophoresis: New Cognac Quality Markers. Journal of Analytical Chemistry 57 (4), 356-361 (2002) (1)Drug Agency of Armenia, ul. Komitasa 49/4, Yerevan, 375051 Armenia (2)Yerevan Cognac Factory, Pernod Ricard Group, pr. Isakova 2, Yerevan, 375051 Armenia (3) Interlab, Vadkovskii per. 1, Moscow, 101472 Russia A new method for the determination of vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, and sinapaldehyde in wines and cognacs by high-performance capillary electrophoresis was developed. It simultaneously determines phenolic aldehydes within a few minutes using a diode-array detector. The method requires no sample preparation. The use of a borate buffer solution with pH 9.3 as a mobile phase increases the UV absorption intensity of these compounds and thus lowers the detection limit. The method is characterized by high reproducibility with dispersion coefficients from 4.47 to 6.89% for all of the analytes. The calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range of 0.30 to 57.0 mg/L. The age of cognacs can be determined by this method with an accuracy of 98.68% and a relative standard deviation of 10%. (link)
Vivian A. Watts *, Christian E. Butzke Analysis of microvolatiles in brandy: relationship between methylketone concentration and Cognac age. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 83 (11), 1143 - 1149 (2003) *Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA email: Vivian A Watts (email@example.com). Headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to identify and quantify four odd-numbered methylketones in commercial Cognac brandies. These ketones are in part responsible for the desirable and complex characteristic called rancio charentais or Cognac rancio which is found in grape brandies aged in oak barrels for several decades. The ketones 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone form through -oxidation and decarboxylation of long-chain fatty acids originating from yeast metabolism. The concentrations of these ketones increased with Cognac age classification in the 42 brandies analysed, and 2-heptanone was present at the highest concentration in most samples. The average concentrations and rates of formation decreased with increasing chain length. Total concentrations ranged from 21 to 328 µg l-1. The esters propyl octanoate and ethyl octanoate followed the same trend as the methylketones and appear to play an additional role in the formation of the rancio character. (link)P.
Ledauphin J., Saint-Clair J.F., Lablanquie O., Guichard H., Founier N., Guichard E., Barillier D.: Identification of trace volatile compounds in freshly distilled Calvados and Cognac using preparative separations coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 52(16), 5124-34 (2004). ERPCB, IUT-UFR Sciences, 6 Boulevard du Marechal Juin, F-14032 Caen, France. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using both electron impact and chemical ionization detection modes led to the determination of the volatile composition of two samples of freshly distilled Cognac and two samples of freshly distilled Calvados. A total of 169 volatile compounds were directly identified in dichloromethane extracts obtained by liquid-liquid extraction. Trace compounds present in both spirits were characterized with the help of preparative separations. In a first step, groups of compounds were separated by preparative GC, and the fractions were analyzed on a polar stationary phase by GC-MS. In a second step, silica gel fractionation was used to separate them by polarity. In this study, 331 compounds, of which 162 can be considered as trace compounds, were characterized in both freshly distilled Cognac and Calvados. Of these, 39 are common to both spirits; 30 are specific to Cognac with numerous hexenyl esters and norisoprenoidic derivatives, whereas 93 are specific to Calvados with compounds such as unsaturated alcohols, phenolic derivatives, and unsaturated aldehydes. (link)
Ferrari G, Lablanquie O, Cantagrel R, Ledauphin J, Payot T, Fournier N, Guichard E.: Determination of key odorant compounds in freshly distilled cognac using GC-O, GC-MS, and sensory evaluation. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 52(18), 5670-6 (2004). Station Viticole du BNIC, 69 rue de Bellefonds, 16100 Cognac, France. firstname.lastname@example.org This aim of this work was to identify the odorant compounds responsible for the typical sensory descriptors attributed to freshly distilled Cognac spirits, not matured in barrels. Panelists were first selected and trained for gas chromatography-olfactometry. Among the 150 volatile compounds identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, only 34 are mainly responsible for the odors detected in the spirits. The "butter" descriptor is explained by the presence of diacetyl, the "hay" descriptor by nerolidol, the "grass" descriptor mainly by Z-3-hexen-1-ol, but also by other compounds, the "pear" and "banana" descriptors by 2- and 3-methylbutyl acetates, the "rose" descriptor by 2-phenylethyl acetate, and the "lime tree" descriptor by linalool. This study demonstrated that many odorant molecules are already present in freshly distilled Cognac, thereby giving the spirit its specific aroma.
Marche M.; Joseph E. ;Goizet A. ;Audebert J.: Theoretical studies on cognac, its composition and its natural ageing oak barrels. Rev. Franc. Oenol. (Paris) 57, 3-108 (1975), language: french. Original French Title: Etude theorique sur le Cognac, sa composition et son vieillissement naturel en futs de chene. (link)
Sisakian Nm., Egorov Ia.: Nature of substances, determining the quality of aged cognac brandies. Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR. 79(4),639-42 (1951) (link)
Goldberg D. M., Hoffman B., Yang J., Soleas G.J.: Phenolic constituents, furans, and total antioxidant status of distilled spirits. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 47(10), 3978-85 (1999). Department of Laboratory Medicine, Banting Institute, University of Toronto, 100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1L5 Canada. email@example.com The concentrations of 11 phenols and 5 furans were measured in 12 categories of distilled spirits by HPLC methodology, together with the total antioxidant status (TAS) of the same beverages. Ellagic acid was the phenol present in highest concentration in all beverages. Moderate amounts of syringaldehyde, syringic acid, and gallic acid, as well as lesser amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid, were measurable in most samples of whiskey, brandy, and rum but were largely undetectable in gin, vodka, liqueurs, and miscellaneous spirits. 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural was the predominant furan in the former three beverages, notably cognac, with 2-furaldehyde the next highest, but these were undetectable in most of the latter beverages. Highest TAS values were given by armagnac, cognac, and bourbon whiskey, all three of which tended toward the highest concentrations of phenols. Negative TAS values were exhibited by rum, vodka, gin, and miscellaneous spirits in line with the low or undetectable phenol concentrations in these beverages. Wood aging is the most likely source of phenols and furans in distilled spirits. Those beverages exposed to this treatment contain significant antioxidant activity, which is between the ranges for white and red wines, with the potential to augment the antiatherosclerotic functions attributable to the ethanol that they contain. (link)
Puech J.L., Moutounet M.: Liquid chromatographic determination of scopoletin in hydroalcoholic extract of oak wood and in matured distilled alcoholic beverages. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 71(3), 512-4 (1988) Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Laboratoire des Polymeres et des Techniques Physico-Chimiques, Montpellier, France. A liquid chromatographic (LC) method is described for determination of the coumarins esculin, umbelliferone, scopoletin, and 4-methyl umbelliferone in hydroalcoholic extracts of oak wood and in matured distilled alcoholic beverages. Samples were injected directly into the LC column (30 cm, 5 micron C18) and detected by fluorescence detector. Under these experimental conditions, only scopoletin (detection limit, 200 pg) was found in hydroalcoholic oak wood extracts and in spirits matured in oak wood. Applications of this method to spirits distilled from wine, grain, and sugar cane aged in oak barrels showed that amounts varied from 0.026 to 1.57 ppm. (link)
Puech JL, Rabier P, Bories-Azeau J, Sarni F, Moutounet M.: Determination of ellagitannins in extracts of oak wood and in distilled beverages matured in oak barrels. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 73(4), 498-501 (1990). Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Laboratoire des Polymeres et des Techniques Physico-Chimiques, Montpellier, France. A method is described for determination of ellagitannins in ethanol-water extracts of oak wood and in distilled alcoholic beverages matured in oak barrels. It is based on the combined ellagic acid content according to ellagitannin structure. Hydrolysis was carried out in the presence of hydrochloric acid under reflux in a 100 degrees C oil bath for 3 h. Total ellagic acid was thus determined by liquid chromatography (LC), and the free ellagic acid content present in the ethanol-water media was subtracted, the difference being the combined ellagic acid content corresponding to ellagitannins. A 5 micron C18 column was used with detection at 254 nm. The method is specific for ellagitannins, which is an advantage over other analytical techniques for overall evaluation of these substances extracted from wood. Results for spirits distilled from wine, grain, and sugarcane were highly variable. (link)
Puech J.L., Mertz C., Michon V., Le Guerneve C., Doco T., Herve Du Penhoat C.: Evolution of castalagin and vescalagin in ethanol solutions. Identification of new derivatives. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 47(5), 2060-6 (1999). Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Unite de Recherches Biopolymeres et Aromes, Montpellier Cedex, France. firstname.lastname@example.org Brandies, cognac, armagnac, whiskeys, and rums are aged in oak barrels to improve their organoleptic properties. During this period, numerous compounds such as ellagitannins are extracted from the wood and can subsequently be transformed into new derivatives by chemical reactions. Model solutions of castalagin and vescalagin have been studied to determine the behavior of polyphenols in ethanol-water. Upon prolonged exposure to 40 and 70% (v/v) ethanol at room temperature, hemiketal derivatives containing ethoxy groups have been characterized by LC/MS and NMR. These compounds further evolve to afford the corresponding ketals. They have also been detected in the extracts of oak wood stored under similar conditions.
Da Porto C., Calligaris S., Celotti E., Nicoli M.C.: Antiradical properties of commercial cognacs assessed by the DPPH(.) test. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48(9), 4241-5 (2000). Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, University of Udine, Via Marangoni 97, 33100 Udine, Italy. email@example.com Antiradical activities of some commercial cognacs were evaluated by the DPPH(*) test. Different mathematical models for the evaluation of the antiradical efficiency of the cognac samples were proposed and discussed. Nonflavonoid phenols were found to be the main substances responsible of the radical scavenging activity of cognacs. In particular the strongest correlations between antiradical activity measurements and cognac chemical characteristics was found for ellagitannins, high molecular weight polyphenols, which are extracted from the wood and solubilized in the spirit mainly during first year aging. (link)
Watts V.A., Butzke C.E., Boulton R.B.: Study of aged cognac using solid-phase microextraction and partial least-squares regression. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 51(26), 7738-42 (2003). Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS were used to analyze 17 commercial French Cognac brandies (9 young and 8 well-aged, ranging in age from 3 to 55 years). Sixty-four volatiles were chosen on the basis of chromatographic separation and/or known odor importance. Chromatographic peaks were manually integrated and the peak area data analyzed using partial least-squares (PLS) regression to study relationships between volatile composition (X variables) and age (Y variable). When only those compounds with the highest significance were included and from these selected the variables (a total of 33) with the highest correlation loadings on the first two principal components, principal component 1 explained 82% of the variance of the measured compounds and 85% of the variance in age. These were considered the most important volatiles to distinguish products of different ages because young and old samples were separated along principal component 1. Norisoprenoids, terpenes, and acetate esters had weaker positive and negative loadings and were therefore left out. The PLS model could predict sample age accurately with the optimum 33 volatiles as well as with a smaller subset consisting of ethyl esters and methyl ketones. (link)
Stephan Teyssen, Manfred V. Singer: Alcohol-related diseases of the oesophagus and stomach. Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, 17 (4), 557-573 (2003)
Ralay Ranaivo H, Diebolt M, Schott C, Andriantsitohaina R.: Polyphenolic compounds from Cognac induce vasorelaxation in vitro and decrease post-ischaemic cardiac infarction after an oral administration. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol., 18 (3), 331-338 (2004) The effects of Cognac polyphenolic compounds (CPC) on aorta and isolated heart, the consequences of oral administration on haemodynamic parameters, vascular reactivity and cardiac recovery after ischaemia were investigated. CPC induced an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation on rat-isolated aorta. This effect was prevented by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester, but not by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, suggesting the implication of NO pathway. On isolated rat hearts, CPC induced positive inotropic, chronotropic, and lusitropic effect at 10(-4)-10(-2) g/L while at 10(-1) g/L, it had negative lusitropic effect and other parameters returned to baseline values. Oral administration of 40 mg/kg of CPC for 2 weeks did not modify systolic blood pressure and heart rate of rats throughout the treatment. CPC treatment did not affect ex vivo response of isolated thoracic aorta either to the contractile agent noradrenaline or to the endothelial-relaxant agent, acetylcholine. Isolated hearts from treated rats were submitted to 30-min global ischaemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Post-ischaemic recovery of functional cardiac parameters was not modified by treatment with CPC. Infarct size measured after the reperfusion in heart from CPC- treated rats was significantly decreased in comparison with hearts from control group. We conclude that in vitro, CPC had NO-dependent vasorelaxant effects and stimulated cardiac function. Oral treatment with CPC appeared to have no impact in vivo on blood pressure, heart rate of the rats or on cardiac contractility ex vivo; however, it could decrease the infarct size after an ischaemia-reperfusion.
A. G. Panosyan(1), G. V. Mamikonyan(1), M. Torosyan(1), E. S. Gabrielyan(1), S. A. Mkhitaryan(2), M. R. Tirakyan(2), A. Ovanesyan(2): Determination of the Composition of Volatiles in Cognac (Brandy) by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Chemistry 56 (10), 945-952 (2001). (1)Gyul'bekyan Laboratory of Drug Quality Control, Agency on Drugs and Medicinal Technologies of the Armenian Ministry of Public Health, ul. Komitasa 49/4, Yerevan, 375051 Armenia (2)Yerevan Cognac plant of the Pernod Ricard group, prosp. Isakova 2, 375082 Armenia. A method for the quantitative determination of easily volatile compounds in cognac (brandy) by headspace gas chromatography¯mass spectrometry was developed. Alcohols and carboxylic acid aldehydes, acetals, and ethylates were identified by comparing their mass spectra with those presented in the Wiley database, and by comparing their relative retention times with those of reference materials of the known composition. Detection limits for test compounds ranged from 0.02 to 0.2 mg/L. Statistically valid difference in the concentration of compounds with different aromas or specific odors was demonstrated for cognacs aged for 3, 10, and 20 years. The concentration of cognac-flavored compounds, such as diethylacetal and carboxylic acid esters, for example, ethyl formate, significantly increased with age, whereas the concentration of alcohols (butanols, allyl alcohol, hexenol, and toxic methanol) considerably decreased. Comparison analyses of some Armenian, Moldavian, Georgian, Ukrainian, Russian, Kyrgyz, and French cognacs were carried out. (link)
H. L. Gould: Rx cognac: for your health; a review of the therapeutic qualities of cognac. Med. Times.; 91, 692-699 (1963)
Marche M;Joseph E;Goizet A;Audebert J Theoretical studies on cognac, its composition and its natural ageing oak barrels. French titel: Etude theorique sur le Cognac, sa composition et son vieillissement naturel en futs de chene Rev. Franc.. Oenol. (Paris) 57, 3-108 (1975), Language: french.
Ralay Ranaivo H, Diebolt M, Schott C, Andriantsitohaina R.: Polyphenolic compounds from Cognac induce vasorelaxation in vitro and decrease post-ischaemic cardiac infarction after an oral administration. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol. 18(3), 331-8 (2004) Pharmacologie et Physico-Chimie, UMR CNRS 7034, Universite Louis Pasteur, Faculte de Pharmacie, 74, route du Rhin, BF 24, F-67401 Illkirch, France. The effects of Cognac polyphenolic compounds (CPC) on aorta and isolated heart, the consequences of oral administration on haemodynamic parameters, vascular reactivity and cardiac recovery after ischaemia were investigated. CPC induced an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation on rat-isolated aorta. This effect was prevented by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, but not by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, suggesting the implication of NO pathway. On isolated rat hearts, CPC induced positive inotropic, chronotropic, and lusitropic effect at 10(-4)-10(-2) g/L while at 10(-1) g/L, it had negative lusitropic effect and other parameters returned to baseline values. Oral administration of 40 mg/kg of CPC for 2 weeks did not modify systolic blood pressure and heart rate of rats throughout the treatment. CPC treatment did not affect ex vivo response of isolated thoracic aorta either to the contractile agent noradrenaline or to the endothelial-relaxant agent, acetylcholine. Isolated hearts from treated rats were submitted to 30-min global ischaemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Post-ischaemic recovery of functional cardiac parameters was not modified by treatment with CPC. Infarct size measured after the reperfusion in heart from CPC-treated rats was significantly decreased in comparison with hearts from control group. We conclude that in vitro, CPC had NO-dependent vasorelaxant effects and stimulated cardiac function. Oral treatment with CPC appeared to have no impact in vivo on blood pressure, heart rate of the rats or on cardiac contractility ex vivo; however, it could decrease the infarct size after an ischaemia-reperfusion. (link)
Fazakas-Todea I.: The effect of ethanol upon early development in mice and rats. XIX. The late effect of acute preimplantation intoxication with beer and cognac, on the background of chronic consumption, in mice. Rom J. Morphol Embryol 39(3-4), 93-8 (1993) Laboratory of Embryology and Teratology, Center of Hygiene and Public Health, Timisoara, Romania. The effect upon late foetal development of acute preimplantation intoxication with beer and cognac, on the background of chronic consumption was investigated in mice (controlled on day 19 of pregnancy), by using the following criteria: mean number of embryos/animal, number of resorptions, mean foetal and placental weight, changes of internal organs (Wilson's sections), skeletal development. The results showed that both beverages applied had a noxious foetal effect, manifested by: a decrease of the mean number of embryos/animal (cognac), an increased late mortality (beer), a decrease of the mean foetal and placental weight (both beverages) and the presence of some structural anomalies (especially after beer consumption). The more marked effect of beer and the correlation of late effects with preimplantation changes are discussed. (link)
Sedan J.: Whisky, cognac and carbonated water in glaucomatous provocation. Mars Med. 103(12), 971-2 (1966) (link)
Gould Hl.: Rx cognac: for your health; A review of the therapeutic qualities of cognac. Med Times. 1963 Jul;91:692-9. (links)
Lefft H.: Some nutritional and therapeutic aspects of wine and cognac. Int. Rec. Med. Gen. Pract. Clin. 170(7):361-8.(1957) (link)
Menendez Abraham E, Velasco Plaza A, Marin B.: Effect of alcohol treatment on sexual behaviour of male rats. Indian J. Med. Res. 94, 320-6 (1991). Department of Functional Biology (Physiology), University of Oviedo, Spain. The effect of chronic alcohol treatment on sexual parameters of the male rats was studied. The results showed that the ingestion of cognac leads to significant alterations in the sexual behaviour of the male rat. Sexual parameters indicated that sexual behaviour is drastically affected by cognac consumption. The parameters affected were the number of ejaculation; initial latency, ejaculation latencies and neuromotor activities which showed significant variation (P less than 0.01). Further, mounts without, with and total intromissions and refractory periods were significantly affected by alcohol consumption. In addition, the percentage of tests during which an ejaculation was observed was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01) in the alcohol-treated males when compared with control groups. (link)
Chari S., Teyssen S., Singer M.V..: Alcohol and gastric acid secretion in humans. Gut. 34(6), 843-7 (1993). Department of Medicine IV (Gastroenterology), University Hospital of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany. The secretory response of gastric acid to pure ethanol and alcoholic beverages may be different because the action of the non-ethanolic contents of the beverage may overwhelm that of ethanol. Pure ethanol in low concentrations (< 5% vol/vol) is a mild stimulant of acid secretion whereas at higher concentrations it has either no effect or a mildly inhibitory one. Pure ethanol given by any route does not cause release of gastrin in humans. Alcoholic beverages with low ethanol content (beer and wine) are strong stimulants of gastric acid secretion and gastrin release, the effect of beer being equal to the maximal acid output. Beverages with a higher ethanol content (whisky, gin, cognac) do not stimulate gastric acid secretion or release of gastrin. The powerful stimulants of gastric acid secretion present in beer, which are yet to be identified, are thermostable and anionic polar substances. The effect of chronic alcohol abuse on gastric acid secretion is not as predictable. Chronic alcoholic patients may have normal, enhanced, or diminished acid secretory capacity; hypochlorhydria being associated histologically with atrophic gastritis. There are no studies on the acute effect of alcohol intake on gastric acid secretion in chronic alcoholic patients. The acid stimulatory component of beer and wine needs to be characterised and its possible role in the causation of alcohol induced gastrointestinal diseases needs to be investigated. (link)
Singer M.V., Leffmann C., Eysselein V.E., Calden H., Goebell H.: Action of ethanol and some alcoholic beverages on gastric acid secretion and release of gastrin in humans. Gastroenterology. 93(6), 1247-54 (1987). Department of Medicine, University of Essen, Federal Republic of Germany. The action of intragastric ethanol in various concentrations (1.4%-40% vol/vol) and of beer, white wine, cognac, and whisky on gastric acid secretion and release of gastrin was studied in healthy humans. Ethanol concentrations of 1.4% and 4% (vol/vol), but not higher, significantly (p less than 0.05) increased gastric acid secretion to 23% and 22%, respectively, of incremental maximal acid output [i.e., observed response to pentagastrin (6 micrograms/kg s.c.) minus basal acid output]. The 1-h incremental gastric acid responses to beer and wine were 96% and 61%, respectively, of incremental maximal acid output. Neither cognac nor whisky had any stimulatory effect. The 1-h incremental gastric acid response to an 8% peptone meal was 40% of incremental maximal acid output, and to peptone plus white wine 77%. Plasma gastrin levels were not altered by ethanol, cognac, and whisky. The 1-h integrated plasma gastrin responses to beer and white wine were 119% and 77%, respectively, of the response to the peptone meal. We conclude that (a) the action of pure ethanol on gastric acid secretion is related to its concentration: concentrations of 1.4% and 4% are moderate stimulants; concentrations of 5%-40% have no effect, or rather an inhibitory effect; (b) beer and white wine, but not whisky and cognac, are potent stimulants of gastric acid secretion; (c) the stimulatory mechanism of low ethanol concentrations is unknown; and (d) nonalcoholic constituents of beer and wine are most likely responsible for the stimulatory actions of both beverages on gastric acid secretion and release of gastrin. (link)
Simic M, Tasic M, Stojiljkovic G, Budakov B, Vukovic R. "Cognac alibi" as a drunk-driving defense and medico-legal challenge. Med Law. 23(2),367-78 (2004) Institute of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro. Some drivers with positive forensic ethanol analyses, offer an explanation that they consumed alcohol a short time before a traffic accident or after driving. In medico legal practice this is commonly known as hip-flask defense, but to us as "cognac alibi" defense. In these cases, the lawyers require the medico legal experts to offer as much information as possible so that the court may come to the most reliable conclusions about the driver's blood alcohol concentration at the moment of the traffic accident (BAC(Acc)). At the Institute of Forensic Medicine our own analytical approach was established to study this medico legal problem. It consists of three inter-related phases in which it combines the obtained BAC values, with testimonies of the drunk driving suspect andalso witnesses. A specific algorithm was designed for calculating absorption and elimination of consumed alcohol. All the above-mentioned elements and blood-ethanol values calculated according to Widmark's method were inserted into appropriate cells of MS Excel software in order to calculate BAC in the function of time. The result is a relevant analysis of the drunk driving suspect's BAC in 5-minute intervals, as well as a graphic representation in chart form. (link)
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